Thursday, June 21, 2012

Findings from Sanskrit literature


      Number 3 and its Popular facts -

1.      Trimurthi – Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwar

2.      Trikala – Bhootha, Bhavishyath, Varthamaan

3.      Trikarana – Tanu, Mana, Dhana / Kayena, Vaacha, Manasaa

4.      Triguna – Sattwa, Rajas, Tamas

5.      Trikarma – Prarabdha, Sanchitha, Agaami,

6.      Wives of Trimurthi – Saraswathi, Lakshmi, Parvathi

7.      Vehicles of Trimurthi – Hamsa, Garuda, Vrishabha

8.      Prasthanatraya – Upanishad, Bhagavathgeetha, Brahmasutra

9.      Saadhanasutratraya – Shravana, Manana, Nidhidhyasa

10.  Avasthatraya – Jaagrith, Swapna, Sushupthi

11.  Rinatraya -  Devarina, Rishirina, Pithrarina

12.  Thaapatraya – Adhyathmika, Adhibhouthika, Adhidaivika

13.  Tripitaka – Suttapitaka, Vinayapitaka, Abhidammapitaka

 

Number 5 and its Popular facts

Panchang (In Indian almanac) – Vaar(Week), Thithi, Nakshatra, Yoga, Karana

Panchang (In Indian medicine) – Bark of a tree, leaves, roots, flowers and fruits

Panchakajjaya(a sweet dish offered to god) – Beaten rice, jaggery, grated coconut, ghee, sesame

Panchakalyan – Garbhavatharan, Janmabhishek, Parishkraman, Kevaljnan, Nirmaan

Panchaklesh – Avashya, Aakasmik, Raaga, Dwesha, Abhinivesha

Panchagowda(or Panchagowla) – Saraswath, Kanyakubja, Gowda, Utkala, Maithila

Panchadravida – Karnata, Gurjara, Maharashtra, Tamila, Tailanga are 5 types of Brahmins. Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam, Tulu are 5 dravid(Dravidian) languages.

Panchadhara – 5 ways of Horse walk – Aaskanditha, Renchitha, Dhontha, Pallitha, Plutha

Panchapran – Praan, Apaan, Samaan, Udaan, Vyaan

Panchamahapathak – Brahmahathya, Surapaan, Gurupatnigaman, Swarnastheya and coming in contact with all these. These are 5 bad deeds.

Panchamukh – Tatpurush, sadyojath, Aghora, Vamadeva, Eeshan. The five 5 faces of lord Shiva.

 

Number 6 and its Popular facts -

Shadrasa- Madhura, Amla, Tikta, Katu, Kashaaya, Lavana (sweet, sour, bitter, hot, astringent, salty)

Arishadvarga – Kama, Krodha, Lobha, Moha, Mada, Matsara

Shadrithu – Vasantha, Greeshma, Varsha, Sharath, Hemantha, Shishir

Shatdarshana – Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Poorvameemamsa, Uttarameemamsa

Shatdarshana Pravarthakas(pravarthaka – one who works for it and tries to establish it) –

Kapila, Paatanjali, Gautama, Kanaada, Jaimini, Vyaasa

Shadvedanga – Shiksha, Vyaakaran, Chhandassu, Nirukta, Jyothisha, Kalpa

Shatsthala – Mooladhara, Swadhishtana, Manipoora, Anaahatha, Vishuddha, Aajna

Shatkarma – Yajana, Yaajana, Adhyayana, Adhyaapana, Daana, Prathigraha

 

12 names of river Ganges -

1. Nandini

2. Nalini

3. Seetha

4. Malaapaha

5. Malathi

6. Vishnupaadabjasambhutha

7. Ganga

8. Thripathagamini

9. Bhageerathi

10. Bhogavathi

11. Jahnavi

12. Tridasheshwari


How rains were measured in ancient India?

People in ancient times always watched the changes taking place in the nature, very closely.  They watched the positions and movements of planets. The year in which the heat intensity from sun was more, the rains were scanty.  And the year in which moon was powerful, the rains were more, greenery was seen everywhere and human beings were healthier.  The year in which the Mercury, Jupiter and Venus show their prominence has good results. If the Saturn rules the year yields bad results says sage Parashar.


Sage Parashar gives a good explanation on the rains. “Atha Jaladhak nirnayaha

shatha yojanah vistheernah

Threen sharyojana mucchithram

Adhakasya bhave maanam

Munibihi parikeerthitham.”

  
To measure the rains, in ancient times, the Rishis(sages) had used the yardstick.  The area of adhaka (100 yojana wide and 300 yojana height) in a water body had a good capacity to hold water.  Yojana is the thickness of a finger.  I drona=4 adhaka= 6.4 cm

It is somewhat equivalent to the rain measurement done in modern days.  Kautilya’s Arthashastra (economics) has description on how rain was measured in different parts of the country(India) based on “Drona”.

What is Drona rain?

Rains that pour down continuously for 7 days from 3 clouds or a light drizzle from eighty clouds or the light showers from 60 clouds with sunshine. This is explained well in Kautilya’s Arthashastra.

In a year if it rains 16 dronas(25 inches) then there will be dry crops. One and half times(37.5 inches) of rain yields wet crops.  Agricultural land was categorized based on the rainfall in that region.  If the beginning of the rain in the months of July – August (Shravan) were 1/3rd of the annual rainfall and the ending months i.e. October-November(karthika) had rains. And in the middle of the rainy season, i.e. in the month of August-September(Bhadrapada-Ashwija) had 2/3 of the rainfuall, then that particular year was a year that had good rainfall.

The north Indian states that were ruled by Asmakas had 13.5 dronas of rain and Avanti was the state that measured 23 dronas of rainfall in a year.  Western and Himalayan borders of India had more rainfall.


Ekashloki Bhagavatha (Bhagavatha in one shloka) –

Adaou devakidevigarbhajananam gopigrahe vardhanam

Maayapoothanijeevithapaharanam govardhanoddharanam

Kaounsacchedanakaouravadimathanam kuntheethanoojaavanam 

Etadbhagavatham puraanakathitam Sreekrishnaleelamritham

 

Number 16 and its Popular facts -

Shodasha Kala (16 arts) – Amrita, Manada, Poosha, Pushti, Thushti, Rathi, Dhrathi, Shashini, Chandrika, Kanthi, Jyothsna, Shri, Preethi Angada, Poorna, Poornamritha.

Shodasha Daana (16 charities) – Gau, Bhoo, Hiranya, Vastra, Abharan, Chhatra, Chamara, Shayya, Vyajana, Salagrama, Dhana, Dhanya, Deepa, Paduka, Aajya, Kanya

Shodasha Maharaja (16 kings) – Maruttha, Suhothra, Brihadratha, Shibi, Daushyanthibharatha, Daasharathirama, Bhageeratha, Dileepa, Mandhatha, Yayathi, Ambarisha, Shathabindu, Gaya, Ranthideva, Sagara, Prathu

Shodasha Swarga (16 heavens) – Saudharma, Eeshana, Sanathkumara, Mahendra, Brahma, Brahmotthara, Laanthava, Kaapishti, Shukra, Mahashukra, Shataara, Sahasrara, Aanatha, Praanatha, Aarana, Achyutha

Shodasha Samskara (16 hindu etiquettes or customs) – Garbhaadhan, Pumsavan, Seemanthonnayana, Jaathakarma, Naamkaran, Annapraashan, Chaula, Upanayana, Vedavritha Chathushtaya, Nishkramana, Samaavarthana, Vivaaha, Anthyeshti

Shodasha Upachaara (16 types of offerings while worshipping god) – a) Aavahan,
Aasana, Paadya, Arghya, Snaanodvarthana, Vastra, Upaveetha, Gandha, Pushpa, Dhoopa, Deepa, Naivedya, Aachaman, Phala, Taambula, Pradakshina
b) Aasana, Swaagatha, Paadya, Arghya, Aachamaneeya, Madhuparka, Aachaman, Snaan, Vasana, Abharan, Gandha, Pushpa, Dhoopa, Deepa, Naivedya, Vandana


Saraswathi Prarthana (Prayer to Goddess Sharada – the goddess of arts and education)
Namaste sharadadevi Kaashmirapuravaasini I
Tvaamaham praarthaye nithyam vidyaam buddhim cha dehime II

One who dwells in Kashmir, goddess, Sharada, my salutations to you. I pray to bless me with good education and knowledge.

Yaa kundenduthushaarahaaradhawala yaa shubhra vasthraavratha
Yaa veenavaradandamandithakaraa yaa shwethapadmaasana I
Yaa bhrahmachyuthashnkaraprabhrathibhihi devyeh sadaa poojitha
Saa maam paathu saraswathi bhagavthi nissheshajaadyapaha II

Let Saraswathi in the form of Bhagavathi always protect me. She is the one who resembles the white jasmine flower, moon and snow as she wears white clothes.

With the musical instrument Veena she sits on a white Lotus flower. She is the one who has always been worshipped by Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwara and other gods and goddesses. She is the one who keeps us away from all sorts of ailments.

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